Thursday, April 24, 2008

धान की भुसी और कनकी के ब्यवसाय

व्यापार की असीमित संभावनायें हैं धान की भुसी और कनकी के साथ

इस समय मंहगाई को देखते हुये मैने बेकार अथवा वेस्ट से व्यापार की खोज की, घान, जिसकी खेती भारत मे लगभग हर जगह होती है। चावल, मुख्य आहार के साथ साथ कई अन्य प्रकार की बहुउपयोगी वस्तुयें बनाने के काम आता है। पर जैसा कि देखा गया है, धान से चावल को अलग करने के बाद बची हुई भुसी, पशुयों को खिलाने या खाद बनाने के काम आता हे।
पर आज के समय मे भुसी से कई प्रकार की वस्तुएँ बनाने की तकनीक खोज की गई है।


The present world food situation has led technologists to look critically all aspect of food production in order to increase the world’s food resources. Reduction off loss in one- way of making more food available for consumption. Rice sustains more lass than any other cereal before reaching the customer. It is also worth noting here that rice a vital food material for more than half of the words population and also rice is more nutritious than whet along with providing carbohydrates, it also constitutes a principal source of protein. Considering this facts it has now become important to utilize all new technologies available for rice milling rice, rice husk and rice bran.

टुटे हुए बारीक चावल और इसका उपयोग
दक्षिण भारत मे बारीक चावल से अनेक प्रकार के फास्ट फूड तैयार किये जाते है। ईडली के अलावा नुडल,स्नेक्स, ईत्यादि, जिसकी मांग और उपयोगिता को देखकर अन्य शहरों मे लघु उधोग लगाये जा सकते हैं।
(A) BROKEN RICE AND ITS UTILIZATION
Depending upon the pre-and post-harvest practices and the type of mill machinery, weather raw or parboiled rice breaks to varying extent this broken rice, by and large are used in the preparation of breakfast dishes. Traditionally in some countries, broken rice is used in starch manufacture and brewing, for which quality standards established. An alcoholic beverage
SHONTI ANNAM. Is produced in certain part of Andhra pradesh brokens are processed for food uses in to flour, semolina and noodles, raw or pre-gelatinized. Extrusion cooked product for infant foods and snacks has been developed. Major constrains to these uses are microorganisms and insect and tendency of fat to deteriorate.
Quality attribute of rice-based snacks are the narrow range of particle size, uniformity of moisture distribution, absence of expanding material such as husk or other extraneous matter.

धान की भुसी और ईसका उपयोग
धान की भुसी का मुख्य उपयोग खाद के रुप मे किया जा रहा है। नई तकनीकी से धान की भुसी बहुउपयोगी हो चुकी है देखिए आगे।
(B) RICE HUSK AND ITS UTILISATION
Rice husk continues to remain the large identifiable n non- intensively developed agriculture commodity existing on earth. The used are disposal of husk has frequently proved difficult because of the tough woody, abrasive nature of great bulk and high ash content. Steel many a process and technologies have been developed to utilize rise husk. Some of them have been described blew.

(ब)1-धान की भुसी उर्जा उत्पादक
धान की भुसी से विभिन्न प्रकार के भाप संयत्र चलाये जा सकते है। इन्ही भाप सयंत्रो द्वारा बड़े टरबाईन को चला कर बिजली प्राप्त की जाती है।
धान की भुसी का उपयोग ईंट बनाने मे बहुतायत होता है।
(B) 1-ENERGY FROM HUSK
In our country and particularly in our state the husk generated in rice milling is used as a fuel in boiler to generated low-pressure stem. The method of firing and also the boilers used at present are energy inefficient. For improving the inefficient of the system, the following technologies are available.
(1)-gasification of rice husk to produce steam as well as electricity.
(2) Briquetting of rice husk.

छोटे राइस मिल धान की भुसी से 100 हार्स पावर बिजली स्वंय ही तैयार कर सकते हैं। धान की भुसी की प्रज्वलन क्षमता 3000 किलो सायकल प्रति किलोग्राम आँकी गई है।
Gasification of rice husk proves to be deal answer for the rice mill owner. The gasification is done in a biomass gasifier and the gas named producer gas can be fed into diesel generator set along with trace quantity of diesel fort power generation The rice mills can thus generate their own captive power. A small rice mill handling 2tph of paddy requires about 100hp of power. If the power is made available through a D.G. Set-biomass gasifier set then a 100hp engine will need around 180-240kg/hr of husk. Two tones of paddy would yield 400kg of husk, which would result in surplus; thereby the necessary ancillary-electrical requirements can also be met.
The problem of density and transportation cost can be solved by compression or extrusion of rice husk to form briquettes. These briquettes are having more combustion efficiency then rice husk and will also be cost economic considering the transportation cost. The apparent density of rice husk, which is between 100-120kg/cub.m rice to around 700kg/cub.m after briquette formulation. Similarly the calorific value of compressed husk rises to around 3500kcal/kg while the average calorific value of loose husk is around 3000kcal/kg. The combustion efficiency of briquettes is around 50-60% while it is 30-35% for loose husk. All these characteristics make rice husk briquetting a business ventures.

धान की भुसी से तक्थे (बोर्ड) का निर्माण
धान की भुसी से लगभग सभी प्रकार के तक्थे (बोर्ड) बनाये जा सकते हैं। जिसका उपयोग बिजली फिटिंग्स, साउड बाक्स तथा अन्य उपयोगों मे किया जा सकता है, ये तक्थे वजन मे काफी हल्के होते हैं।
तकनीकी
1-घान की भुसी को 8 प्रतिशत सेंटेथिक रेजी़न (एक प्रकार का गोद) के साथ अच्छी तरह मिलायें, एक समान मोटाई पर फैलाये और गर्म प्रेस द्वारा दबा कर 154 से 210 सेंटीग्रेट तक कुछ देर गर्म करें, ताकि सेंटेथिक रेजीन गर्म होकर एकसार हो जाय, तत्पश्चात उसे पुर्ण ठंडा होने दें, बोर्ड तैयार है उसे जैसा चाहें उपयोग करेँ।
2-पानी से छति न होने वाला (वाटर प्रुफ) बोर्ड तैयार करना हो तो भुसी को हल्का नम करके सलफ्यूरिक अम्ल और युरीया के घोल के साथ मिला कर दाब प्रेस द्वार एक सार दबा 130 से 160 सेंटीग्रेट तक गर्म करें।
3-घान की भुसी को 40 से 60 मेश अर्थात 2 से 4 मीली मीटर की जाली से छान कर 5 से 8 प्रतिशत एच2एसओ4 मिला कर गर्म प्रेस से धीरे-धीरे दबाये तथा 200 सेटीग्रेट तक गर्म करें।
4-धान की भुसी को 10 से 20 मेस अर्थात 0.5 से 2 मीली मीटर की जाली से छान कर फिनाल फारमेल्डीहाइड रेजीन 7 से 8 प्रतिशत मिला कर गर्म प्रेस से दबायें।
(B)-2 COMPOSITE BOARDS
All types of panel boards use for exterior of interior purposes in the from of wallboards, floor or ceiling can be made from husk using resin to bind the materials together. The various manufacturing technologies have been described in brief below
(1)-rise husk is mixed with 8 percent by weight of synthetic resin and pressed in preheated hot press using definite pressure at 154 Deg.C to 210 Deg.C.
(2)-the moisture level of husk is increased to 20 percent and pressed at a temperature of 130-160 Deg.C. Under a pressure of 80kg/sqcm for 30 minutes and conditioning for 12 hours acid like sulphuric acid or urea are added @3 percent of the weight of material to make the board water proof.
(3)- the husk is ground to a particle size of 40-60 meshes. The powered husk is mixed thoroughly with h2so4 at 5-8% of husk weight and dried. The dried mixture is pressed slowly by a hot hydraulic press at 60-70kg/sq cm pressure and at 165-200 deg. C.
(4)- the husk is ground to a particle size of 10-20 mess and is thoroughly mixed with phenol formaldehyde resin at 7-8% of husk weight. The resin coated husk is sun dried and them hot pressed slowly
The cost economics shows that if husk has to be transported for short distance and is cheap in cost, the manufacturing of boards/panels can be a promising business venture.
ब-3 सोडियम सीलीकेट
सोडियम सीलीकेट का उपयोग मुख्यतः साबुन, सिलिका जेल, गोद,ग्लास फोम, वाटर प्रूफ करने, के काम मे आता है। सोडियम हाईड्राआक्साईड और धान की भुसी के साथ रियेक्सन कराने पर सोडियम सालाकेट प्राप्त होता है।

B -3 SODIUM SILICATE
Sodium silicate is used in the manufacture of soap, detergents silica gel, as adhesives in sealing and laminating paper, bleaching and sizing of paper pulp and textiles glass foam, pigment, water proofing mortars and cement and in impregnating wood etc. The process of manufacturing sodium silicate using rise husk is given below.
Sodium hydroxide is allowed to react with rice husk ash. The sodium hydroxide required in the process is obtained by the reaction of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The solution obtained due to reaction of sodium hydroxide with husk ash is filtered and concentrated to the desired strength. The basic process chemistry remains more or less the same with change in method of operation for quality and cost economics. If manufacturing of soap adjunct to sodium silicate production is done, the project can become a very lucrative proposition

(B)-4 MOLECULAR SIEVES

Molecular sieves are pours crystalline aluminum silicates.
They have emerged as a new class of efficient absorbent a
Catalysts. They can regenerated readily, show high water absorption and process longer life compared with the alternative materials like silica gel, active alumina or active carbon. Molecular sives finds appliction in chemical, petrochemical and gas industries as absorbent, for desiccations, and drying, bulk separation etc.
Type a and type x molecular sives can be successfully manufactured using paddy husk. The process comprises of –
i. Extraction of silica from paddy husk as sodium silicate using sodium hydroxide.
ii. Mixing the extract with definite proportion of sodium aluminates under suitable condition to prepare aluminates silicate gel.
iii. Crystallizing the gel under normal pressure and suitable temperature to produce desired molecular sieve powder.

ब-5 एक्टीवेटेड कार्बन
घान की भुसी मे लगभग 35 प्रतीशत पोटेशीयम थायोसाइनेट मिला कर एक विशेष प्रकार की भट्ठी मे 300 से 500 सेंटीग्रेट पर करके कार्बन डाई आक्साइड के मिश्रण द्वारा एक्टीवेट किया जाता है।

(B)-5 ACTIVATED CARBON
The typical process of manufacturing activated carbon from rice husk will be as follows.
(1)-saturation of rice husk with a 35% solution of potassium thiocinate.
(2)- drying and heating of the saturated solution to 300-500 deg. C.
(3)-roasting with stem or (co2) to wash the char.
(4)-heating of the carbonized matter to activated temperature.

बारीक कनकी और उसका ब्यवसायिक उपयोग
बारीक कनकी द्वारा राइस ब्रान आइल (चावल का तेल) प्राप्त कर सकते है, इस प्रकार बने तेल मे भरपुर प्रोटीन, विटामीन और सभी प्रकार के आवश्यक मिनरल पाये जाते हैं।

RICE BRAN AND ITS UTILIZATIONS
Rice contains good quality protein and other valuable nutrients but with the present milling practices most of this is removed in the by-product namely rice bran. Rice bran is rich in oil, proteins, minerals and vitamins and can prove to be a boon for lower section of the society. But at present bran is considered one of the most under utilized and frequently wasted commodity. Several rice bran products have been developed viz.full fatunstabilised and stabilized bran, defatted bran, dephytinizedbran defibred bran, protein concentrates and isolates and purified rice germ.

स-1 राइस ब्रान बनाने का तरीका
कनकी को हैक्सीन के साथ सालवेंट रीकवरी प्लांट मे क्रिया करा कर डिस्टिल प्लांट द्वारा डिस्टिल कर के राईस ब्रान आईल प्राप्त किया जाता है।

C-1. RICE BRAN OIL
Crude rice bran oils of high acid value are usually used for producing solidified oil, stearic and oleic acid, glycerin and soap.
Rice bran can be manufactured both by mechanical and solvent methods. The mechanical processing method is extensively used in Japan and china however most of the countries use the solvent extraction process.
There are several types of solvent extraction processes-batch, battery and continuous. The continuous extracting process has the additional advantage of extracting other raw materials. A brief description of process is given below:
Sifting and air separation purify rice bran. Rice bran is palletized to insure maximum extraction. The pellets are fed in to a slow moving endless wire mesh band conveyor housed in specially designed air-light vertical chamber. The solvent is sprayed on the pellets by atomizer, which percolates through the material bed and during the process the oil gets extracted. The oil rich solvent is distilled and recovered.

स-2 चावल मोम
चावल के मोम का ब्यवसायिक उपयोग अत्यधिक है, कास्मेटिक उधोगो मे चावल के मोम की अत्धिक माँग है।

C-2 RICE WAX
is useful for industrial, cosmetic and edible purposes s, if extracted and refined to a pure bleached condition. It is used in polishes, vegetable coating, food wraps, stencils and carbon papers. This material has also been approved as an ingredient or coating agent for candy, chewing gum and fruits.
We can infer from the above discussion that a wide range of product’s can be manufactured using the byproducts generated in rice mills. Although some of these products have now seen successfully placed in the market, some of then need a deeper look for cost economic purposes. Similarly some of the products are not viable if individual item is manufactured in a single unit but when 2 or more products are manufactured in a single unit, the project become viable as well as lucrative too. Entrepreneurs from rice growing belts should come forward to tap the vast market offered by the single largest grain food of the world i.e. Rice.

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